Tuesday, November 25, 2014

The Great Angel

“See, I am sending an Angel before you to protect you on your journey and lead you safely to the place I have prepared for you. Pay close attention to Him, and obey His instructions. Do not rebel against Him, for He is My Representative, and He will not forgive your rebellion. But if you are careful to obey Him, following all My instructions, then I will be an enemy to your enemies, and I will oppose those who oppose you. For My Angel will go before you and bring you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites, and Jebusites, so you may live there. And I will destroy them completely. You must not worship the gods of these nations or serve them in any way or imitate their evil practices. Instead, you must utterly destroy them and smash their sacred pillars. You must serve only the Lord your God. If you do, I will bless you with food and water, and I will protect you from illness. There will be no miscarriages or infertility in your land, and I will give you long, full lives. I will send My terror ahead of you and create panic among all the people whose lands you invade. I will make all your enemies turn and run. I will send terror ahead of you to drive out the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites.” Exodus 23:20-28 (NLT)

Who was this Angel that went with the Israelites after leaving Egypt? Many biblical scholars have put forth various ideas and suggestions of the mysterious guardian “Angel of the LORD” or “Angel of God.” This Angel appears often in the early Old Testament story and is sometimes identified with the God (see Genesis 16:7-13; Genesis 18:1-33; Genesis 22:11-18; Genesis 24:7, 40; Genesis 31:11-13; Genesis 32:24-30; Genesis 48:15-16; Exodus 3:2-6; Exodus 14:19; Exodus 23:20-23; Exodus 32:34-33:5; Numbers 22:22-35; Joshua 5:13-15; Judges 2:1-5; Judges 6:11-23; Judges 9:13-23). Some scholars have called the “Angel of the LORD” an anarchangel, such as Michael (Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1) or Gabriel (Daniel 8:16; Luke 1:11, 19, 26). In other words, the Angel was a “chief or first angel” angel. Angels are essentially messengers from God.

Most biblical scholars agree that the Angel in Exodus was a manifestation of God (see also Exodus 14:9). In other words, God was in the Angel in the same way He was present in the pillars of cloud and fire (Exodus 13:21-22). Many biblical scholars call this Angel a Theophany, a self-manifestation of God. The Angel here speaks as God, identifies Himself with God, and claims to exercise the privileges of God (see also Genesis 16:7-14; Genesis 21:17-21; Genesis 22:11-18; Genesis 31:11, 13; Exodus 3:2; Exodus 14:19; Exodus 33:14-15; Joshua 5:13-15; Judges 2:1-4; Judges 5:23; Judges 6:11-24; Judges 13:3-22; 2 Samuel 24:16; Zechariah 1:12; Zechariah 3:1; Zechariah 12:8). The Angel of the Lord speaks for God in the first person as God’s Messenger-Servant. Because the Angel of the Lord ceases to appear after the incarnation (advent or arrival) of Jesus Christ in the New Testament, many biblical scholars often concluded that this Angel in the Old Testament is a pre-incarnate appearance or manifestation of the second Person of the Holy Trinity – the Lord Jesus Christ (the Son of the living God). In other words, this special Messenger-Servant was Jesus Christ Himself – the One who appeared in the burning bush (Exodus 3:2). Whether this “Angel” was the second Person of the Trinity remains therefore uncertain.

After clearly stating Israel’s requirements of the covenant (Exodus 19:1-23:19), God stated His part of the covenant promises. If the people kept the covenant requirements, God promised to protect the people (see Exodus 19:5-6; Exodus 23:22-23). God told Moses and the Israelites that He was sending an Angel to go ahead of the Israelites to guard them along the way and to bring them safely to His Promised Land (Canaan) (Exodus 23:20, 23). The Angel was God’s Presence to provide protection, help, and guidance for the Israelites. God instructed the Israelites to respect the Angel, to pay attention to the Angel, and to obey all of His instructions (Exodus 23:21). The Israelites were not to rebel against the Angel of the Lord (Exodus 23:21). If the Israelites disobeyed, the Angel will not forgive their wrongdoing and rebellion (Exodus 23:21). The Angel was God’s Presence or Representative because the Angel bore God’s Name (Exodus 23:21). God’s “Name” is equivalent to God’s “Presence” (see Exodus 3:13-15, 2 Samuel 7:13; 1 King 5:5). Essentially, God’s very nature and God’s Presence was with the Angel. Without the Presence of God, the people could not receive God’s blessings and protection.

Even more, God promised Israel’s protection and success through obedience to the Angel. God promised Israel that if they listened carefully to the Angel and do all that He says, God would be an enemy to Israel’s enemies and will oppose those who opposed Israel (Exodus 23:22). This promised was a repeating of Genesis 12:3. God previously promised to “bless those who bless you and curse those who treat you with contempt” (Genesis 12:3, NLT). In other words, participation in God’s divine blessings of the Abrahamic covenant as well as the Sinai covenant was conditioned on Israel’s obedience and trust in the Angel of the Lord (see Genesis 17:1-27; Genesis 18:18-19; Genesis 22:18; Genesis 26:4-5; Exodus 19:3-6; Romans 1:5). God’s covenant promises (see e.g. Deuteronomy 28:1-14) were contingent upon absolute loyalty to the covenant of God. The Angel was the protector of the covenant (see Isaiah 63:9; Malachi 3:1). God promised Israel to bring His covenant blessings to those that obey and follow His instructions (see also Exodus 19:5-6; Leviticus 26:3-13; Deuteronomy 7:12-15; Deuteronomy 28:1-14; Deuteronomy 31:1-10; Joshua 1:7-8). In other words, obedience to God’s covenant was the key to Israel’s blessings (Exodus 19:1-23:19; see also John 14:13, 23; Romans 1:5; 1 Corinthians 7:19; Galatians 6:7-10; James 1:22-25). Obedience to God’s covenant brings blessings and life (Exodus 19:5-6; Deuteronomy 30:15-16, 19-20; see also Matthew 19:17; Hebrews 12:9). If you obey God, God promises to “will walk among you; I will be your God, and you will be My people” (Leviticus 26:12, NLT).

God’s Angel would go ahead of the Israelites and bring them into the land He promised to give Abraham (see Genesis 15:17-21). God, not Israel, would take possession of the land (Exodus 23:29-31). The Promised Land would be a gift to Israel from the covenant God. Israel was granted possession of the land as long as they faithfully fulfilled God’s covenant. This land was currently held by the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites. God promised to remove these people from God’s Promised Land (Exodus 23:23). Once again, the true and living God (Yahweh) warned the Israelites against idolatry. God told the Israelites not to worship nor serve the gods of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites and do not imitate their evil practices in the land (Exodus 23:24). Idolatry is a great sin because idolatry means worshipping and following other gods and not worshipping and following the true and living God and not obeying His covenant.

Previously, God had given the Israelites specific laws and regulations with His Ten Commandments and Book of the Covenant so that Israel would be a holy (sanctified) nation and reflect God’s holy nature to the world (Exodus 19:1-23:19; see also Romans 12:1-2; 1 Peter 2:5, 9). If the Israelites loved, obeyed, and worshipped God and obeyed God’s covenant, His blessing will be on their lives, food, and water (Exodus 23:25). Even more, God promised to take away sickness from among Israel and provide the Israelites a full life span (Exodus 23:26). Again, God’s blessings would only come if the people worshipped and obeyed God and God’s covenant and not follow the evil practices of other pagan religions (Exodus 23:26). If the Israelites obeyed God from their heart, God promised to meet all their needs and defeat their enemies (Exodus 23:25-26).

Since the Old Testament, God has always commanded wholehearted obedience to Him and His covenant (Leviticus 26:41; Deuteronomy 30:6, 12-14; Jeremiah 9:26; see also Acts 7:51; Romans 2:28-29). Obedience to God’s covenant does not save people; only our wholehearted faith in God brings salvation (Romans 1:16-17, see also Genesis 15:6; Habakkuk 2:4). Salvation only comes through our faith, particularly faith in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Romans 1:16-17, see also Genesis 15:6; Habakkuk 2:4; Ephesians 2:8-10; 2 Corinthians 5:21). The Holy Scriptures teaches that salvation is a GIFT of God received only through true faith in Him (see Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9). Yet, we are sanctified (made holy or set apart) through our obedience to God and God’s covenant (Exodus 19:5-6; see also 1 Peter 2:5, 9).

Still more, God promised to send His fear before the Israelites (see Exodus 15:16; Exodus 23:27-30; Joshua 2:9–11). He promised to send panic and confusion to every nation they had to face in military action. The true and living God wanted the people to be wholly devoted and committed to Him. Through Israel’s love and worship, God would go before them, terrorize their enemies, and empower the Israelites to conquer their enemies and their land. Indeed, the “terror of God” did go before the Israelites and weaken the people and their hearts in Canaan (Joshua 2:9–11).

Jesus Christ is the only One that can forgive sins and only in Him is the wonderful Name of the Lord (Luke 5:21). Jesus is Lord (Romans 10:9; see also John 20:28; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 John 4:2-3), and He has God's power to heal and forgive (see Matthew 4:23-25). In Jesus Christ is the fullness of God (Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:9). In other words, the God of Israel is in Jesus Christ. God had prepared a place for the Israelites (Exodus 23:20) just as Jesus Christ is preparing a place for those that wholeheartedly love and obey Him (John 14:1-6). Amazingly, Jesus Christ’s visited earth in the Old Testament to help His people, to meet special needs, and to accomplish God’s special tasks (see Exodus 3:7-10; Exodus 23:23). To Abraham, Jesus Christ came as a Traveler to share in a friendly meal (Genesis 18:1-8). To Jacob, Jesus Christ came as a Wrestler to bring Jacob (also named Israel) to the place of submission (Genesis 32:22-32). To the three Hebrew boys, Jesus Christ came as their Companion in the furnace of fire (Daniel 3:25, 28). Joshua met Jesus Christ, the Captain of the Lord's armies, just before his battle with Jericho (Joshua 5:13-15). Jesus Christ always comes to us when we need Him and in the way we need Him.

The fact that the Son of God took on a temporary body, left heaven, and came down to help His people throughout the Old Testament surely reveals His grace and love. In the wilderness, the Israelites saw the visible manifestations of God and He taught the Israelites some important truths about Him. The Israelites should have learned that He is the living God who sees us and hears our cries when we hurt (Exodus 2:23-25). The true and living God is a personal God, concerned about all people who will trust Him. The book of Exodus is important to all believers in Jesus Christ because God came down to rescue His people from bondage and save His people (Exodus 3:8). With the advent of Jesus Christ in the New Testament, God once again came down to rescue and save His people (see also Matthew 1:21).

Some of Israelites did not trust and obey God and God’s covenant. The Israelites’ failure to trust God and God’s Presence lead some Israelites to be condemned to journey in the wilderness until the generation twenty years old and upward had all died, except for Caleb and Joshua. For thirty-eight years, God would guide His people and then bring them back to the borders of Promised Land with God’s Presence. So, what is God’s Presence? God’s Presence is essentially the fruit of the Holy Spirit – compassion, mercy, patience, unfailing love, faithfulness, and forgiveness (see Exodus 33:15-18; Exodus 34:6-7; Galatians 5:22-23).

King James Version Study Bible. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1988.
KJV Bible Commentary. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1994.
Life Application Study Bible. Carol Streams, IL: Tyndale House Pub., 2005.
NLT Study Bible. Carol Streams, IL: Tyndale House Pub., 2008.
Ryrie Study Bible. Chicago, IL: Moody, 1995.
Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2008.
Butler, Trent. Holman Bible Dictionary. Broadman & Holman Pub., 1991.
Packer, J.I. Concise Theology: A Guide to Historic Christian Beliefs. Carol Stream, IL:  Tyndale House Pub., 1993.
Wiersbe, Warren W. Bible Exposition Commentary. Victor Books, 1989.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Book of the Covenant

Exodus 20:22-23:19 continues the Sinai covenant and provides additional laws. The stipulations or terms in this section are called the “Book of the Covenant” (Exodus 24:7).  These requirements were given by God but were now spoken through Moses. At Exodus 20:18-21, the Israelites asked Moses to speak to God directly after the people heard God’s voice from heaven and witnessed manifestations of God's glory and power in the thunder, the loud blast of the ram’s horn, the flashes of lightning and the smoke billowing from the mountain. The people said to Moses “You speak to us, and we will listen. But do not let God speak directly to us, or we will die!” (Exodus 20:19, NLT). God is transcendent (supreme), as shown by His speaking to the Israelites in a spiritual (or disembodied) voice from heaven at Mount Sinai (Exodus 20:22).

God stated His basic laws – the Ten Commandments – at Exodus 20:1-17. Then, God told Moses how to apply the Ten Commandments to specific situations at Exodus 20:22-23:19 so that everybody would receive equal justice, kindness, and fairness in everyday life. The Book of the Covenant is not a collection of picky laws but case studies or case law from such topics as theft, seduction, giving, personal injury, kidnapping, gossip (false rumors), blaspheme, murder (intentional and unintentional), dishonoring parents, personal loans and interest, sorcery and occult practices (e.g., spells, magic), courtroom behavior, rape, bestiality, and idolatry. These requirements were largely expansions an explanation of the Ten Commandment. God was taking various potential life situations and teaching the Israelites how His Ten Commandments would work in their daily lives. The case studies listed did not cover every possible situation but gave practical examples of how to treat people justly. God is just (Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:6) and God loves righteousness and justice (see Psalm 33:5; Isaiah 61:8). The Book of the Covenant revealed that God expected His people to express His love, kindness, and fairness equally to all people (e.g., rich, poor, men, woman, foreigners, widows and orphans), property and even animals to assure His justice.

The Book of the Covenant is specifically noted for its fairness and social responsibility toward the widow, the poor, and the foreigner. God insisted that the widow, orphan, poor and powerless be well treated (see also James 1:27; James 2:2-7). In fact, the poor, the widow, the orphan, the alien, the powerless, and defenseless people are objects of God’s special concern and providential care (e.g., see Exodus 21:26-27; Exodus 23:6-12; Psalm 10:14, 17-18; Psalm  146:9; Isaiah 1:23; Zechariah 7:10; Malachi 3:5; Romans 15:26; Galatians 2:10).  Repeatedly throughout the Holy Scriptures, God denounced oppression of the widow, the fatherless, the alien, and the poor (e.g., see Deuteronomy 10:17-19; Isaiah 1:17, 23; Jeremiah 5:28; 1 John 3:16-18). God expected His people to protect the oppressed and the needy members of society. The Book of the Covenant demanded the Israelites to be kind to strangers and aliens, widows and orphans, and the poor (Exodus 22:21-27; Exodus 23:9; see also Deuteronomy 24:17-21). The widow, the orphan, and the alien were in a helpless and economically disadvantaged position. The rich, wealthy, and strong must not exploit and abuse widows, orphans, aliens, or the poor but give them the help they need (Exodus 22:21-22 see also e.g., Leviticus 25:35-38; Proverbs 28:8). God hears the cries of the afflicted and suffering (Exodus 22:23, 27). When the Israelites were in trouble, God helped and rescued them. Therefore, the Israelites were not to take advantage of others in difficulty and weakness. Also, God wanted to protect the especially tender relationship between mother and offspring (see Exodus 23:19; Leviticus 22:28; Deuteronomy 22:6-7).

The Book of the Covenant also included the so-called law of retaliation (lex talionis) (Exodus 21:23-25; see also Leviticus 24:17-20; Deuteronomy 19:21). This requirement was meant to limit the punishment to fit the crime. An actual eye or tooth was never exacted. Jesus Christ objected to an extremist use of this judicial principle to excuse private, personal vengeance (see Matthew 5:43-48). By invoking the law of love, Jesus Christ corrected the popular misunderstanding of the law of retaliation and provided the Law’s originally meaning or intent (Leviticus 19:17-18, 34; see also 1 John 2:9). As Jesus Christ reminded, God’s people are not to retaliate or seek revenge of their enemies but love all people, including their enemies (Matthew 5:38-42, 44; see also Exodus 23:4-5; Deuteronomy 22:1-4; Proverbs 25:21). Instead, God’s people must leave punishment and judgment to God and God’s appointed authorities (Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:8-9, 28; Exodus 22:28; Romans 13:1-7; Hebrews 10:30) and we must love one another, including our enemies (see Romans 13:8-14; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8). Avenging people is God’s prerogative, not ours (Deuteronomy 32:35-36). When we are wronged, Jesus Christ encouraged all people to love, forgive and do good to those who wrong us and not seek revenge (Matthew 19:19; Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27; John 13:34; Hebrews 13:15-16). Believers in Jesus Christ are never called to retaliate but are called to love one another and forgive everyone, including our enemies (see Matthew 18:21-35; Galatians 5:14). All believers in Jesus Christ are “to do good and to share with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased” (Hebrews 13:16, NIV). The Book of the Covenant reveals God’s instructions to wholeheartedly love and honor Him, love one another, respect people’s property, and not do such evils as gossiping, murdering, exploiting, stealing, harming animals, coveting, and mistreating people. We should act fairly and justly with all people — friends and enemies alike (see also 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9).

Apostle Paul:  Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. . . . Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited. Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. Do not take revenge, my friends, but leave room for God's wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,” says the Lord. On the contrary: “If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. Romans 12:9-10, 14-21 (NIV)

However, these various laws in the Ten Commandment and the Book of the Covenant did not change people’s hearts nor declare one righteous (see Romans 3:21-4:25). But, these commandments and laws did help to control Israel’s conduct and give order to the nation. The Holy Bible reveals that God loves order and not chaos and confusion. Even more, these various laws in the Book of the Covenant reflected God’s holy character and nature the unchanging moral principles expressed in the Ten Commandments. When obeyed, these various laws protected the people from violence, gossip (slander), extortion, oppression, sorcery, witchcraft, and mistreatment. Justice was to be fair for all people (Exodus 23:2-3). One of the most dangerous and disastrous periods in Israel’s history was the period of the Judges when “every man did that which was right in his own eyes” (see Judges 17:6; Judges 18:1; Judges 19:1; Judges 21:25). The enforcement of good laws does not guarantee a perfect society, but it does promote order and prevent anarchy and chaos.

Keep on loving each other as brothers (and sisters). Do not forget to entertain strangers, for by so doing some people have entertained angels without knowing it. Remember those in prison as if you were their fellow prisoners, and those who are mistreated as if you yourselves were suffering. . . . Through Jesus, therefore, let us continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise – the fruit of lips that confess His name. And do not forget to do good and to share with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased. Hebrews 13:1-3, 15-16 (NIV)

If we truly love God with all our hearts, we will have no desire to hurt and harm others but to reach out to all people in need, even our enemies (Matthew 22:34-40; see also Luke 10:30-37). The true and living God (Yahweh) wanted to be first in the people’s hearts and lives. God’s people were not to worship, seek after, or even speak of other gods (Exodus 20:23; Exodus 23:13, 24; see also Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6, 27; Deuteronomy 18:10-12). But if God is not first place in our hearts and lives (Matthew 6:33), we will exploit and abuse people and destroy God’s earth by misuse of earth’s resources. Throughout Israel’s history, the early Christian history and today, God has repeatedly sent His messengers (prophets) to command the people to stop sinning, doing evil, and disobeying God. If the Israelites obeyed the Book of the Covenant, the Covenant Lord agreed to protect them from enemies (Exodus 23:22-23) and from illness (Exodus 23:25-26) and give them a land to possess (Exodus 23:27-31). These covenant promises were contingent upon absolute loyalty to the Covenant Lord.

The Lord gave another message to Jeremiah. He said . . . . “I will be merciful only if you stop your evil thoughts and deeds and start treating each other with justice; only if you stop exploiting foreigners, orphans, and widows; only if you stop your murdering; and only if you stop harming yourselves by worshiping idols. . . . Do you really think you can steal, murder, commit adultery, lie, and burn incense to Baal and all those other new gods of yours, and then come here and stand before Me in My Temple and chant, “We are safe!”—only to go right back to all those evils again? Don’t you yourselves admit that this Temple, which bears My Name, has become a den of thieves? Surely I see all the evil going on there. I, the Lord, have spoken! . . . . When I led your ancestors out of Egypt, it was not burnt offerings and sacrifices I wanted from them. This is what I told them: ‘Obey Me, and I will be your God, and you will be My people. Do everything as I say, and all will be well!’ But My people would not listen to Me. They kept doing whatever they wanted, following the stubborn desires of their evil hearts. They went backward instead of forward. From the day your ancestors left Egypt until now, I have continued to send My servants, the prophets—day in and day out. But My people have not listened to Me or even tried to hear. They have been stubborn and sinful—even worse than their ancestors.” Jeremiah 7:1, 5-6, 9-11, 22-26 (NLT)

Life Application Study Bible. Carol Streams, IL: Tyndale House Pub., 2005.
NLT Study Bible. Carol Streams, IL: Tyndale House Pub., 2008.
Ryrie Study Bible. Chicago, IL: Moody, 1995.
Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2008.
Wiersbe, Warren. With the Word Bible Commentary. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1991.
Wiersbe, Warren W. Bible Exposition Commentary. Victor Books, 1989.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

God’s Handwriting

Then God gave the people all these instructions: “I am the Lord your God, who rescued you from the land of Egypt, the place of your slavery. You must not have any other god but Me. You must not make for yourself an idol of any kind or an image of anything in the heavens or on the earth or in the sea. . . . You must not misuse the Name of the Lord your God. . . . Remember to observe the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. You have six days each week for your ordinary work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath day of rest dedicated to the Lord your God. On that day no one in your household may do any work. This includes you, your sons and daughters, your male and female servants, your livestock, and any foreigners living among you. For in six days the Lord made the heavens, the earth, the sea, and everything in them; but on the seventh day He rested. That is why the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart as holy. Honor your father and mother. Then you will live a long, full life in the land the Lord your God is giving you. You must not murder. You must not commit adultery. You must not steal. You must not testify falsely against your neighbor. You must not covet your neighbor’s house. You must not covet your neighbor’s wife, male or female servant, ox or donkey, or anything else that belongs to your neighbor.” Exodus 20:1-4, 7-17 (NLT)

The next great section of Exodus is chapters 20 through 24. In this section, God personally spoke His Ten Commandments followed by further instructions given to His servant Moses to tell His people, the Israelites (Exodus 20:1; Deuteronomy 5:4). At Mount Sinai, God exclusively wrote and spoke the Ten Commandments (see also Exodus 31:18; Deuteronomy 10:4). “When the Lord finished speaking with Moses on Mount Sinai, He gave him the two stone tablets inscribed with the terms of the covenant, written by the finger of God” (Exodus 31:18, NLT). “The Lord wrote the terms of the covenant—the Ten Commandments—on the stone tablets” (Exodus 34:28, NLT). The Lord God proclaimed “His covenant—the Ten Commandments—which He commanded you to keep, and which He wrote on two stone tablets (Deuteronomy 4:13, NLT). The Ten Commandments are also called the “Ten Words” of the covenant or law and called the “Decalogue” (see Deuteronomy 4:13; Deuteronomy 10:4). These Ten Commandments were again repeated by Moses at Deuteronomy 5:6–21 and were placed in the sacred Ark of the Covenant (Deuteronomy 10:1-5).

Notice that BEFORE God announced any instructions or commandments for the Israelites, God reminded the Israelites of His grace in redeeming (liberating) the Israelites from Egyptian slavery by His mighty outstretched hand (Exodus 20:2; see also Exodus 6:6-7; Exodus 12:1-42, Exodus 14:1-31). “I am the Lord your God, who rescued you from the land of Egypt, the place of your slavery” (Exodus 20:2, (NLT). In other words, God’s grace and redemption preceded the giving of God’s law. God expected His people to humbly obey His commandments out of gratitude for His gracious acts of redemption and salvation from Egyptian slavery. Obedience to God’s commandments was for the people’s own good (Deuteronomy 10:13). God wanted the people to always fear Him (have respect for Him); walk in all His ways; wholeheartedly love and serve Him; and obey His good commandments (Deuteronomy 10:12-13; see also Luke 12:5). Obedience to God’s commandment brings blessings and life (Exodus 19:5-6; Deuteronomy 30:15-16, 19-20; see also Matthew 19:17).

The Ten Commandments were the fundamental requirements of God’s covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai. They constituted the basis of the moral principles and summarized what the one true God expected of His people in terms of their daily faith, worship, and conduct. In fact, the Ten Commandments given at Exodus 20:1-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6–21 formed a central core of morality. As mentioned earlier, the Ten Commandments were written by God’s hand (Exodus 31:18). The first five books of the Holy Bible (the Pentateuch) are known as books of the Law because they are based upon on God’s Ten Commandments given at Mount Sinai (also called Mount Horeb).  Essentially, the Ten Commandments are a summary of the Old Testament Law (Exodus 20:2-17; Deuteronomy 5:6-21).

By Jesus Christ’s earthly ministry, the Law meant not only the Old Testament Scriptures (the written Law), but also the oral law (unwritten law) of Israel as well. The religious leaders developed these oral laws and were sometimes referred to as “the tradition of the elders” (compare Matthew 15:2; Mark 7:5; Galatians 1:14). After the Babylonian captivity, the Jewish rabbis began to make meticulous rules and regulations governing the daily lives of the people. These rules and regulations were interpretations and application of the Law of Moses, handed down from generation to generation. The Pharisees and teachers of the law considered “the tradition of the elders” equally important as the written Law of Moses given at Mount Sinai. It was not until 200 A.D. that these oral rules and regulations were put into writing in the Mishnah. However, Jesus Christ did not follow the “traditions of the elders” and was often called a lawbreaker because of His violations of these oral laws. Amazingly, Jesus Christ completely fulfilled the Sinai covenant by living totally devoted, faithful, and obedient to God and God’s instructions.

Jesus Christ moved the understanding of the Law of Moses from its external meaning into its internal motives – the heart. Moving God’s instructions from outward observance to an inward heart motivation and meaning was Jesus Christ’s concern and the original concern of Moses (see Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28; see also Deuteronomy 10:12-16). Jesus Christ taught and lived the written Law of Moses and the written Law’s true intentions perfectly. In this sense, Jesus Christ affirmed the heart and the spirit of the Law. The entire written Law of Moses stood for two great principles: love for God and love for neighbor (see Matthew 22:34-40; Mark 12:28-31; Luke 10:25-28; Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:6, 13-14; James 2:8). The commandments to love God and love our neighbor had been in the Law all along (see Deuteronomy 6:4-6; Leviticus 19:18). Jesus Christ simply lived genuine love in His public ministry (e.g. fairness, truth, justice, mercy, humbleness, kindness, forgiveness, gentleness, and compassion) (1 Corinthians 13). According to Jesus Christ, doing to others what you would have them do to you expresses the spirit and intent of “the Law and the Prophets” (Matthew 7:12; see also Matthew 5:17; Mark 12:31; John 13:34). Even more, our love for one another obeys Jesus Christ’s royal commandment (John 15:12, 17). If we genuinely love our neighbors, we will not covet what they have, steal from them, lie about them, or do any of the other evil things God prohibits in His Holy Word. This is why love is the fulfillment of the Law (Romans 13:8-10).

Jesus Christ:  “I have loved you even as the Father has loved Me. Remain in My love. When you obey My commandments, you remain in My love, just as I obey my Father’s commandments and remain in His love. I have told you these things so that you will be filled with My joy. Yes, your joy will overflow! This is My commandment: Love each other in the same way I have loved you. There is no greater love than to lay down one’s life for one’s friends. You are My friends if you do what I command. I no longer call you slaves, because a master does not confide in his slaves. Now you are My friends, since I have told you everything the Father told Me. You did not choose Me. I chose you. I appointed you to go and produce lasting fruit, so that the Father will give you whatever you ask for, using My Name. This is My command: Love each other."  John 15:9-17 (NLT)

The Apostle Paul recognized that the Law had been given for a good purpose. The Law was holy, just and good (see Romans 7:7-12, 14; 1 Timothy 1:8). God’s commandments revealed to the people God’s ways of living holy lives (sanctification). Because of human sinfulness, the Law became a curse instead of a blessing (Galatians 3:10-13). Like Jesus Christ, the Apostle Paul saw the Old Testament Law fulfilled in the command to love, because genuine love does no harm and hurt to one’s neighbor and always seeks God’s glory (Romans 13:8-10; Galatians 5:13; Colossians 3:14; see also James 2:8; 1 John 4:8, 16; 1 John 5:3). God calls His people, through faith in Jesus Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit, to genuinely love one another as Jesus Christ loved the church and give His life as an offering.

God sends His Holy Spirit to now write the requirements of the Law onto human hearts. Only with the help of God’s Holy Spirit can we meet the requirement to love, which fulfills the entire Law (Galatians 5:16, 22-23; Romans 8). Through our faith in Jesus Christ, God now writes His commandments on our human hearts through the inward working of His Holy Spirit (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Ezekiel 36:26-27; Romans 8:2-4; Hebrews 8:8-12). In the Old Testament, God’s commandments were written on tables of stone (Exodus 24:12). But under the New Testament, God writes His commandments on our hearts through our faith in the life and death of Jesus Christ (2 Corinthians 3:1–3). God’s Holy Spirit makes the commandments a part of your inner being and enables believers in Jesus Christ to fulfill the righteous demands of God’s commandments (Romans 8:1–4). This is often called sanctification. Sanctification leads to loving God and loving one another (see also Micah 6:6-8; Matthew 22:34-40).

Obedience to the Ten Commandments does not and could not provide salvation (meaning declaring one righteous and justified before God) for either Jews or Gentiles (see Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:11; Romans 3:20-24, 28). God never intended His instructions or commandments to earn the people’s salvation or redemption (also called justification) (Romans 3:21-4:25; see also Galatians 2:16-17). Obedience to God’s commandments does not save people; only our wholehearted faith in God brings salvation (Romans 1:16-17, see also Genesis 15:6; Habakkuk 2:4). Salvation only comes through our faith, particularly faith in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Romans 1:16-17, see also Genesis 15:6; Habakkuk 2:4; Ephesians 2:8-10; 2 Corinthians 5:21). The Holy Scriptures teaches that salvation is a GIFT of God received only through true faith in Him (see Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9). The Ten Commandments reveal God's righteousness and demands righteousness, but obedience to the Ten Commandment cannot give  righteousness (Galatians 2:21); only Jesus Christ brings our righteousness before God (2 Corinthians 5:21). Only faith and acceptance in the blood of Jesus Christ can cleanse us from sin (1 John 1:7, 9; Hebrews 10:22). Even more, God provides us His Holy Spirit and our inheritance through our faith in Jesus Christ (see Galatians 3:2, 18; Galatians 4:1-7). God sends His Holy Spirit to all who believe on His Son, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit empower believers to obey God's righteous will – the Ten Commandments (Romans 8:1-3).

In the Old Testament Law, God gave the Israelites more than six hundred specific commandments. All of these commandments were based on the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1–17). The Ten Commandments are a summary of more than six hundred specific commandments. These ten instructions or laws were for the Israelites’ good and not hurt. The Jewish ceremonial system presented in Exodus and Leviticus was fulfilled by Jesus Christ’s life, death and resurrection, but the moral content of God's law still remains. Nine of the Ten Commandments are repeated in the New Testament epistles for the church to honor and obey. Only the Sabbath commandment is not repeated in the New Testament. God lavishes His unfailing love for a thousand generations on those who love Him and obey His commands (Exodus 20:6). Even more, these instructions or commandments revealed God’s holy nature and character to the people would reflect God’s true nature to the world.

The first four commandments deal with our relationship with God (our vertical relationship), while the last six commandments deal with our relationship with people (our horizontal relationship). If we love God and obey Him, we will also love others. As to sanctification, God requires His people that call upon Him in faith to obey the His unchanging moral law as summarized in the Ten Commandment (see Matthew 19:17-21; Mark 10:18-21; Luke 18:20). The Ten Commandments reflects God’s righteous character and disobediences to God’s Ten Commandments make a person unclean (see Matthew 15:19-20; Mark 7:20-23).

In the first commandment, God instructed the Israelites not to worship any other gods (Exodus 20:3; see also Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Matthew 4:10; Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:29-30; Luke 10:27). No other god was to rival the one true God in Israel’s heart and life (see also Exodus 20:22-26). The Israelites had just left from Egypt, a land filled with many idols, many gods, and goddess. Yet, God revealed to the Israelites, the Egyptians and the world that He was the only true and living God of heaven and earth. There is no other god like El-Shaddai – the Lord God Almighty (Exodus 6:3; Exodus 7:5 Exodus 15:11-14). “For the Lord your God is the God of gods and Lord of lords. He is the great God, the mighty and awesome God” (Deuteronomy 10:17, (NLT). The true and living God of Israel created all things, sustains all things, and controls all things (see Acts 18:24-28). God will not share His worship with another, including the idol of money, fame, work, or pleasure (Deuteronomy 10:20-21). “You must fear the Lord your God and worship Him and cling to Him. . . . He alone is your God, the only One who is worthy of your praise” (Deuteronomy 10:20-21, NLT). God wanted the people’s exclusive and wholehearted love, devotion, allegiance, obedience and worship as their only true God. In His public ministry, Jesus Christ lived out this commandment by living fully obedient, devoted and submissive to God with His whole heart, soul, mind, and strength (John 17; see also Deuteronomy 6:4-6).

Second, the Israelites were to not form, shape or make idols of any kind, idols made of silver or gold, or any image (human or non-human) of anything in the heavens or on the earth or in the sea (Exodus 20:4-6, 23; see also Luke 16:13). No human or thing was to be an object of worship (see also Deuteronomy 5:8-9). God is Spirit and cannot be represented by statues or any likeness (John 4:24). When the Israelites came near and stood at the foot of Mount Sinai, the Israelites heard the sound of His words but did not see His form; there was only a voice (Deuteronomy 4:11-12). Because God has no visible form, any idol intended to resemble God would be a sinful misrepresentation of Him (see Deuteronomy 4:12, 15-18). Besides, God is jealous and He will not share His worship or affections with any other gods (Exodus 20:5). God desires and deserves our first love, affection, and worship (Exodus 34:14; Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 5:9; Deuteronomy 6:15). Those people that were unfaithful and worshipped other gods or idols would bring down God’s judgment and wrath on themselves and their household (Exodus 20:5). Yet, faithfulness and obedience to God and His commands brought God’s lavish unfailing love on themselves and their household for a thousand generations (Exodus 20:6).  

Thirdly, the Israelites were not to misuse or disrespect the Name of the Lord God (Exodus 20:7; see also Matthew 5:34). God’s Name must always be respected, esteemed, and honored by the people and never used falsely or frivolously (Leviticus 19:12). We must respect God’s Name and use God’s Name properly with love, praise and worship rather than in falsehood, cursing or joking. Those who disrespected or misused God’s Name will not go unpunished (Exodus 20:7).  

Fourth, the Israelites were to maintain the Sabbath day as a holy day and cease from their daily duties and regular work (Exodus 20:8-9; see also Genesis 2:2; Exodus 16:23; Exodus 35:3; Leviticus 25; Numbers 15:32-36; Deuteronomy 5:13-15; Mark 2:27-28).  The Sabbath day was a day of rest before God and the Israelites were to do no work of any kind and nor shall their sons, daughters, slaves, or cattle shall work (Exodus 20:10). For six days the Lord God created the heaven, earth, and sea, and everything in them, and He rested on the seventh day after the work of creation (Exodus 20:11). So the Sabbath day is blessed and set aside for rest and worship to God (Exodus 20:11). God wanted the people to realize a holy Sabbath day of rest as the Sabbath day is God’s gift of rest (Exodus 16:29-30). Worship, meditation, and physical rest from a busy work week would characterize the Sabbath day. “The Sabbath was made to meet the needs of people, and not people to meet the requirements of the Sabbath” (Mark 2:27-28, NLT).

The fourth commandment is the only one of the Ten Commandments not repeated after the day of Pentecost (Acts 2). The church made Sunday a day of rest and worship as they celebrated Jesus Christ’s resurrection each week (Acts 20:7). Sunday is the Lord’s Day. The Lord’s Day is the first day of the week – so named because Jesus Christ rose from complete death on that day (Revelation 1:10). On the Lord’s Day, believers in Jesus Christ meet for worship, instruction in the faith, doing good works, and mutual encouragement of one another (see Mark 3:4; Ephesians 5:19; Hebrews 10:24-25). Believers in Jesus Christ rested on the first day of the week (Sunday) and then they could go forth to serve the living God with the energy He supplies on that first day (1 Corinthians 16:2; Colossians 2:16–17). Besides, God’s people are restored physically and spiritually when we take one day to rest and to focus on God. To observe a weekly time of rest, mediation and worship in our fast-paced world gives us the benefit of refreshing our spirits and resting in God.

Fifth, the Israelites were to honor, respect, and highly prize their father and mother so they may have a long life filled with blessings (Exodus 20:12). Proper honor and respect in the family home became a basis for a solid social structure (see also Deuteronomy 21:18-21; Ephesians 6:1-4). Yet, God still expected the Israelites to love and worship Him before and above father, mother, brother and sister (see Matthew 10:37).

Sixth, the Israelites were not murder (Exodus 20:13). God differentiated between accidental killings from deliberate murder. Intentional or deliberate killing resulted in capital punishment (Exodus 21:12-14). Yet, Jesus Christ went further. Jesus Christ said “if you are even angry with someone, you are subject to judgment! If you call someone an idiot, you are in danger of being brought before the court. And if you curse someone, you are in danger of the fires of hell” (Matthew 5:22, NLT). Killing is a terrible sin, but anger is a great sin too because it also violates God's command to love one another (Matthew 22:34-40; Mark 12:28-31; Luke 10:25-28; Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:6, 13-14; James 2:8). Jesus Christ said “if you are presenting a sacrifice at the altar in the Temple and you suddenly remember that someone has something against you, leave your sacrifice there at the altar. Go and be reconciled to that person. Then come and offer your sacrifice to God” (Matthew 5:23-24, NLT). Jesus Christ encouraged the people to quickly resolve any disputes and settle their differences (Matthew 5:25; see also Proverbs 25:8-10). Anger and broken relationships hinder our relationship with God. Jesus Christ has commanded to both love God and love people (Matthew 22:34-40). We are hypocrites if we claim to love God while hating others (1 John 4:20).

Seventh, the Israelites were not to commit adultery (Exodus 20:14). The commandment against adultery applied to both husbands and wives (Leviticus 20:10; Hebrews 13:4). The Old Testament law said that it is wrong for a person to have sex with someone other than his or her spouse (Exodus 20:14). Jesus Christ said “anyone who even looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart” (Matthew 5:28, NLT). “Those leering looks you think nobody notices — they also corrupt” (Matthew 5:28, MSG). According to Jesus Christ, the mental desires and fantasies to have sex with someone other than your spouse is mental adultery and destroys marital intimacy. Even more, Jesus Christ said “that a man who divorces his wife, unless she has been unfaithful (that is a sexually immoral life-style), causes her to commit adultery” (Matthew 5:32, NLT). Divorce is hurtful and destructive. God intended marriage to be a lifetime commitment (Genesis 2:24; see also Malachi 2:15-16). God wants everyone to make every effort to forgive, reconcile, and restore relationships (1 Corinthians 7). “Marriage should be honored by all, and the marriage bed kept pure, for God will judge the adulterer and all the sexually immoral” (Hebrews 13:4, NIV).

Eighth, the Israelites were not to steal (Exodus 20:15). Stealing deprives others of what God has entrusted to them (see Exodus 22:1-5). Ninth, the Israelites were not to lie (Exodus 20:16). This commandment applies inside and outside the court room. God warns us against deception, dishonesty, and deceitfulness and commands His people to walk in all truth and moral integrity (1 Kings 2:4; Proverbs 25:18; Colossians 3:9). We must be honest with God, to other people, and to ourselves. “For there are six things the Lord hates — no, seven: haughtiness (pride), lying, murdering, plotting evil, eagerness to do wrong, a false witness, sowing discord (conflict) among brothers (Proverbs 6:16-19, TLB). God desires truth in the inward parts, which will be reflected in our outward speech (see Psalm 51:6; Jeremiah 5:2-3). This commandment also prohibits insulting, false rumors, and gossip (Exodus 23:1; Titus 3:1-2;; 1 Peter 2:1).

Who may climb the mountain of the Lord and enter where He lives? Who may stand before the Lord? Only those with pure hands and hearts, who do not practice dishonesty and lying. They will receive God’s own goodness as their blessing from Him, planted in their lives by God Himself, their Savior. These are the ones who are allowed to stand before the Lord and worship the God of Jacob. Psalms 24:3-6 (The Living Bible)

Tenth, the Israelites were not to be envious (covetous, jealous, or begrudging) of others’ houses, spouses, servants, animals, success or anything else his or her neighbor owns (Exodus 20:17). Coveting includes envy — grudging the fact that others have what you do not have. The other commandments concerned outward actions, but the tenth commandment dealt with a person’s inward actions (e.g. heart desires and thoughts). God wanted to assure the Israelites did not sin inwardly (see James 1:13-15) and to be content with God’s provisions (Philippians 4:11; 1 Timothy 6:6). “Look, the highest heavens and the earth and everything in it all belong to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 10:14, NLT). Even more, Jesus Christ warned the people to “be on your guard against all kinds of greed” (Luke 12:15, NIV). Greed is essentially desires for what we do not have or desiring to have the possessions of others. Life is not measured by how much you own or possession (Luke 12:15). The good life has nothing to do with our wealth or possession because one’s life is not in the abundance of one’s possessions. A truly good life is living in a relationship with God and doing His good work. Possession never makes anyone happy for long.

When the people heard the thunder and the loud blast of the ram’s horn, and when they saw the flashes of lightning and the smoke billowing from the mountain, they stood at a distance, trembling with fear. And they said to Moses, “You speak to us, and we will listen. But do not let God speak directly to us, or we will die!” “Do not be afraid,” Moses answered them, “for God has come in this way to test you, and so that your fear of Him will keep you from sinning!” As the people stood in the distance, Moses approached the dark cloud where God was. Exodus 20:18-21 (NLT)

After God personally spoke His Ten Commandments, the Israelites witnessed God’s mighty presence – the thundering, lightning, trumpet blasts, darkness, and the smoke rising from Mount Sinai (Exodus 20:18). The Israelites stood at the base of Mount Sinai shaking with fear and awe at the presence of God’s power and authority (Exodus 20:18). After witness God’s mighty presence and hearing God’s voice, the Israelites told Moses to personally speak with God and then instruct the people with God’s instructions (Exodus 20:19). Moses told the Israelites not to be afraid because God revealed His awesome power so they will be afraid to sin against Him as the true God and would therefore obey Him. (Exodus 20:20). Moses entered the deep darkness and spoke to God and Moses became God’s spokesman to the people of Israel (Exodus 20:21-22). Moses was to make known God’s will from heaven, that is God’s instruction (commandments or law), to the Israelites (Exodus 20:22). As to altars made to worship God, an acceptable altar had to be simple altars made of earth or with natural uncut stones or boulders, and without steps (to prevent indecent exposure – nakedness while climbing up to the altar) (Exodus 20:24-26). At the altars, God would come and bless the people (Exodus 20:24).

Apostle Paul:  So put all evil things out of your life: sexual sinning, doing evil, letting evil thoughts control you, wanting things that are evil, and greed. This is really serving a false god. These things make God angry. In your past, evil life you also did these things. But now also put these things out of your life: anger, bad temper, doing or saying things to hurt others, and using evil words when you talk. Do not lie to each other. Colossians 3:5-9 (NCV)

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